Works by Fr. Joseph De Torre

Born in Madrid on 25 May 1932, and educated in Spain and Italy, PROF. JOSEPH M. DE TORRE, B.A., University of Barcelona, M.A., Angelicum, Ph.D. (Philosophy), Angelicum, Rome, was ordained priest in 1955 for the Opus Dei prelature, and spent the next thirteen years in Ireland and England in continuous pastoral and educational work. In 1968, he came to the Philippines, where he has been serving as chaplain and spiritual director to people of all walks of life. Since 1970, he has been teaching social ethics, social economics, and modern philosophy at the Center for Research and Communication, and imparting these courses, as well as “theology for lay people” courses, to students of all sectors and age groups. He headed the Department of Philosophy at the CRC College of Arts and Sciences from 1989 to 1994, and is at present University Professor Emeritus of Social and Political Philosophy in the University of Asia and the Pacific.

He is a member of the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars (USA), the American Catholic Philosophical Association, the Society of Catholic Social Scientists (USA), the American Maritain Association, the Royal Institute of Philosophy (UK), the International Society for the Study of European Ideas (Israel), the Catholic Educators Resource Center (Canada), the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs (USA), the University Faculty for Life (USA), the Atlas Economic Research Foundation (USA) and the Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty (USA).

Several of his well-known books are used as textbooks in many schools here and abroad.

Being Is Person, 2005, back cover

De Torre, J. M. (2010). The Historical Genesis of Modern Science And Its Effects upon Civilization And Culture. Quezon City: Gabriel Books, Inc. 183 pages. 9 x 6 in.

Professor De Torre brings a wealth of reading and reflection to the task of critically analyzing some of the main strands of philosophical thought that were woven together in the scientific revolution of the modern period. Very hopefully he identifies major figures and ideas, and shows their role in developing approaches to the questions of human nature, knowledge and reality.

– Professor John Haldane, University of St. Andrews, Scotland

Price: 525.00

ISBN: 978-971-8547-083

Copyright: 2010

Format: Paperback | pages

Publisher: University of Asia and the Pacific

Language: English

Category: Religion

De Torre, J. M. (2005). Being is person:  Personalism and human transcendence in socio-economic and political philosophy. Metro Manila: University of Asia and the Pacific Foundation, Inc. 290 pages. 9 x 6 in.

“In the depths of each and every human person lies the quest for the totality of reality, namely, being” (De Torre, 2005, p. viii, emphasis added).

Against the backdrop of the unprecedented bloodbaths of the 20th century brought about by totalitarian ideologies, whether collectivist or individualist, that have tried to destroy humanity, the author describes the rise of a God-centered humanism or personalism, putting on center stage the unrepeatable reality of the human person as open to infinity.

Price: 630.00

ISBN: 978-971-85277-33

Copyright: 2005

Format: Paperback | 306 pages

Publisher: University of Asia and the Pacific

Language: English

Category: Religion

De Torre, J. M. (Ed.) (2002). Population matters: A symposium. Pasig: University of Asia and the Pacific. 152 pages. 9 x 6 in.

A country’s poverty is often blamed on the size of its population and its lack of some sort of population control program. And yet, population size is known to positively determine economic vitality; an economy will flounder in the long run if there is an insufficient number of young people with the skills to give dynamism. This collection of articles focuses primarily on the macro arguments related to population—on the demographic and economic aspects as pertains to nations, regions of the world, and cities.

Price: 195.00

ISBN: 978-971-85275-66

Copyright: 2002

Format: Paperback | 152 pages

Publisher: University of Asia and the Pacific

Language: English

Category: Religion

De Torre, J. M. (2001). Contemporary philosophical issues in historical perspective. Pasig: University of Asia and the Pacific. 252 pages. 9 x 6 in.

In this book, Father Joseph M. de Torre addresses issues such as: socialism, phenomenology, and existentialism; the relationships among science, philosophy, and religion; and the contrast between current movements towards globalism, and contrary forces such as cultural chauvinism, religious division, and militarism. What he does is to demonstrate to contemporary man how these perennial philosophical principles can be applied to the social conditions of today, to rebuild a sound civilization.

-Professor Stephen M. Krason, Franciscan University of Steubenville

Price: 300.00

ISBN: 971-8527-53-2

Copyright: 2002

Format: Paperback | 152 pages

Publisher: University of Asia and the Pacific

Language: English

Category: Religion

Second Edition
De Torre, J. M. (1997). The Church and temporal realities (2nd ed.). Pasig: University of Asia and the Pacific. 136 pages. 8.75 x 5.75 in.

In social relations man should exercise his rights, fulfil his obligations and, in the countless forms of collaboration with others, act chiefly on his own responsibility and initiative. This is to be done in such a way that each one acts on his own decision, of set purpose and from a consciousness of his obligation, without being moved by force or pressure brought to bear on him externally.

Human society . . . ought to be regarded above all as a spiritual reality in which men communicate knowledge to one another in the light of truth, in which they can enjoy their rights and fulfil their duties, and are inspired to strive for moral good. Society should enable men to share in and enjoy the legitimate expressions of beauty, and encourage them constantly to pass on to others all that is best in themselves, while they strive to make their own the spiritual achievements of others (Pope John XXIII, cited in De Torre, 1997, pp. 62-63, emphasis added).

This book originated in a series of six lectures delivered by the author . . . in February and March 1987 at the Banahaw Cultural Center as running commentaries on the author’s other book Politics and the Church: From Rerum Novarum to Liberation Theology (De Torre, 1997, preface to the first edition).

The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 with the collapse of Marxist communism world-wide. . . . put an end to the so-called Cold War, initiated in 1945 at the end of World War II. Since then, the hopes for a dramatic resurgence of freedom have been severely wounded by a tragic resurgence of both a devastating autonomous individual freedom and an equally devastating collective (ethnic, nationalistic or religious) fanatical self-affirmation. . . . .

Pope John Paul II has since produced an enormous amount of authoritative teaching on this subject of the “Church and Temporal Realities” . . . The present second edition of the book is in line with all of them (De Torre, 1997, preface to the second edition).

The Church and Temporal Realities is a collection of six lectures:  “Role of the Christian in Temporal Matters”; “The Spiritual and Supernatural Mission of the Church”; “The Social Order Is Part of the Moral Order”;  “What Is Democracy?”; “The Equality of All Men”; and “Primacy of the Common Good”. It also contains eight appendices:  “What is Superfluous?”; “Man’s Right to Education”; “Unity and Plurality in Society”; “Ethical Keys to Economic Development”; “What Is the Social Doctrine of the Church?”; “The Church’s Love of Preference for the Poor: Sollicitudo Rei Socialis a New Social Encyclical”; “The Social Concern of the Church”; and “Aspiring to Freedom”.

Second Edition
De Torre, J. M. (1997). The humanism of modern philosophy (2nd ed.). Pasig: University of Asia and the Pacific. 349 pages. 9 x 6 in.

The genuinely human awakening of man to reality (as distinct from his animal awakening before the age of reason, which is only sensuous and emotional, aroused simply by pain or pleasure) occurs when his intellect is met by reality as such, i.e. when the question why? breaks out into consciousness, when his power to know what things are in themselves, whence they come, whither they go, and how come they are there, is brought into act. This is what marks the activation of humanity in man and gives him his superiority over animals and over all material things, not in order to tyrannize over them, for he has to go along with the laws (physical, chemical, biological) of the material universe, but in order to use and perfect them in accordance with their nature, thus sharing in the divine government of the world (De Torre, 1997, pp. 7-8, emphasis added).

The purpose of this book is not to provide one more history of philosophy, but rather to trace the roots of the progressive loss of man’s freedom to his progressive estrangement or alienation from God and his withdrawal into himself:  this is the man-centered or immanentistic humanism of modern philosophy (De Torre, p. 9).

This book contains 24 chapters, comprising the following topics:  Historical introduction; medieval philosophy; Thomism and Secularism in the 15th and 16th centuries; Rene Descartes; the evolution of Rationalism after Descartes; Scholasticism in the 17th and 18th centuries; further developments in Rationalism; Philosophy in Britain—Deism, Empiricism and Liberalism; further developments in Empiricism; the Enlightenment in France; Immanuel Kant; the transition into Idealism; Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel; the first half of the 19th century in France; the first half of the 19th century in Britain; an overall view from the mid-19th century to our time; Marxist historical and dialectical materialism; the reaction of Kierkegaard against Hegel; Irrationalist Vitalism—Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Freud, and Dilthey; the development of Evolutionism; philosophical aspects of Modernism; varieties of Positivism; Phenomenology and Existentialism; and the revival of Thomistic Metaphysics.

De Torre, J. M. (1995). Generation and degeneration: A survey of ideologies. Metro Manila: Southeast Asian Science Foundation, Inc. 214 pages. 8.5 x 5.5 in.

While generation connotes integration and unity, as well as vitality and fruitfulness, degeneration connotes the opposite, namely disintegration and division, as well as anemia and sterility.


After a long, checkered, depressing and exciting history of mankind, as we look back to its origins and subsequent development we can observe in astonishing variety a number of degenerations as well as revivals, periods of decadence alternating, or running along with periods of progress; successes and failures; triumphs and defeats; achievements and disasters; gains and losses; tragedy and comedy: the drama of human history in each individual and in each society.

In the following chapters a number of such isms or ideologies have been identified in the history of mankind, but the list is not exhaustive. They have been subjected to a discussion and analysis both empirical (historical, phenomenological, scientific) and ontological (metaphysical) in the hope of presenting a diagnosis of the present situation of mankind.

Is it possible for man to generate progress, or are we doomed to perpetual catastrophe? Is unity possible? It is the author’s hope that after going through the said analysis we may come to a synthesis and final conclusion (De Torre, 1995, pp. 1-3, emphasis added).

This book comprises 34 chapters discussing the following ideologies:

  1. From Unity to Monism
  2. From Religion to Pantheism
  3. From Faith to Fideism, from Dogma to Dogmatism
  4. From Tradition to Traditionalism
  5. From Progress to Progressivism, from Modernity to Modernism
  6. From History to Historicism
  7. From Reason to Rationalism
  8. From Plurality to Pluralism
  9. From Lower Emotion to Emotivism, from Higher Emotion to Emotionalism, from Sentiment to Sentimentalism
  10. From Life to Vitalism
  11. From Matter to Materialism
  12. From Idea to Idealism
  13. From Economy to Economism
  14. From Evolution to Evolutionism, from Race to Racism
  15. From Security to Secularism, from Nature to Naturalism, from Humanity to Humanism
  16. From Science to Scientism, from Technology to Technologism
  17. From Relativity to Relativism
  18. From Absolute to Absolutism, from Fatherhood to Paternalism
  19. From Society to Socialism, from Equality to Egalitarianism, from Community to Communism
  20. From State to Statism, from Perfection to Perfectionism
  21. From Individual to Individualism, from Subjectivity to Subjectivism
  22. From Function to Functionalism, from Utility to Utilitarianism
  23. From Existence to Existentialism
  24. From Liberty to Liberalism
  25. From Action to Activism, from Practice to Pragmatism, from America to Americanism
  26. From Will to Voluntarism, from Law to Legalism
  27. From Nation to Nationalism
  28. From Form to Formalism, from Structure to Structuralism
  29. From Sociology to Sociologism, from Culture to Culturalism
  30. From Clergy to Clericalism, from Laity to Laicism
  31. From Peace to Pacifism, from Military to Militarism
  32. From Woman to Feminism
  33. From Environment to Environmentalism
  34. From Authority to Authoritarianism

De Torre, J. M. (1995). Openness to reality: Essays on secularism and transcendence. Metro Manila: Southeast Asian Science Foundation, Inc. 151 pages. 8.5 x 5.5 in.

The enthronement of the “Goddess Reason” at Notre Dame of Paris at the height of the French Revolution marked the triumph of rationalism, the philosophy initiated with Descartes one and a half centuries earlier. But just as the “liberty, equality and fraternity” of the French Revolution was engulfed by the resurgent absolutism of Napoleon and the subsequent Bourbon Restoration, the philosophy of rationalism was overpowered by the on-rushing romanticism that was putting sentiment above reason, spontaneity above rules, creativity above conformity.

What these two philosophies had in common, however, was the reduction of the human horizon to man himself, namely a humanism remaining within man, within this world—a secular humanism. . . .


The arrival of the Third Millennium of Christianity presages a revival of a renewed philosophy and culture no longer rejecting man’s transcendence and candid openness to reality—a philosophy Christian in inspiration and truly postmodern both on empirical and theoretical grounds.

The following essays on secularism and transcendence intend to do some exploration on the subject (De Torre, 1995, pp. 1, 3, emphasis added).

Openness to Reality spans 14 chapters, covering the following topics:  Secularity, secularism and evolutionism; can pragmatism provide a basis for human rights; Philosophy as a gateway to all knowledge and action; a crisis of inwardness; the restoration of Christian Philosophy; Modernism and Neo-Modernism; right and duty of bishops to defend the natural law publicly and authoritatively; Statism, Socialism and utopia; peace is possible—a challenge to the university; John Paul II’s stubborn humanism (the encyclical Centesimus Annus); the Church’s universal catechism; higher education in the context of globalism and Philippine culture; free society andCentesimus Annus; and transcendental Thomism and the encyclical Veritatis Splendor.

De Torre, J. M. (1992). Freedom, truth & love: The encyclicalCentesimus Annus. Metro Manila: Center for Research and Education College of Arts and Sciences. 179 pages. 8.5 x 5.5 in.

The social teaching of the Church, being deeply rooted in a supernatural revelation sinking its roots in natural philosophy as its fertile soil, possesses such a rich complexity and delicate balance that it must be studied in both its historical context and background (tradition) and in its luminous doctrinal content, with loving openness and sympathy.


Freedom is the indispensable condition for the attainment of truth, and what binds freedom and truth together is love, namely the sincere pursuit of the ultimate good, articulated in the twin commandments of the natural law to love God and neighbor, through the systematic practice of justice and charity or solidarity (De Torre, 1992, pp. vii-viii, emphasis added).

This book originated in a series of six public lectures on the encyclical Centesimus Annus, delivered at the Center for Research and Communication in August and September 1991, on the centennial of Rerum Novarum. Each lecture was followed by an open forum. The six chapters of the book are suitably edited versions of the transcriptions of each lecture (covering the six chapters of Centesimus Annus) including the open forum of each (De Torre, 1992, p. vi).

The six lectures in Freedom, Truth & Love cover the following topics:  Nature of the social teaching of the Church, characteristics of “Rerum Novarum”; towards the “new things” of today, the perennial validity of Christian anthropology, the alienating ideologies; ideological crisis—the year 1989, the survival of free enterprise and capitalism; private property and the universal destination of material goods; state and culture, government, freedom and solidarity, the attainment of the common good; and man is the way of the Church, true and false humanism, true and false democracy.

De Torre, J. M. (1990). Informal talks on family and society. Metro Manila: Center for Research and Communication College of Arts and Sciences. 155 pages. 7.25 x 4.75 in.

The content of the book is the dynamic interaction and symbiosis of the individual person, the family and the common good of society.

It compresses into “informal talks” the topics developed by the author in other more elaborate and “scholarly” books, but here more condensed and synthesized, though hopefully more clearly expounded.

The sources are, as always, the Magisterium of the Church and natural philosophy, or in short, Christian Philosophy, namely a philosophy which is really philosophy or rational argumentation starting from “natural” data and principles, and so, perfectly qualified to serve as common ground for universal dialogue, regardless of particular religions or individual cultures; but it is at the same time Christian, because it has been constructed under Christian inspiration (De Torre, 1990, pp. 5-6, emphasis added).

Informal Talks on Family and Society is divided into four parts:  The institution of the family; the family and civil society; Church and state and the family; and ideologies and the family.

De Torre, J. M. (1990). William James: Pragmatism. Metro Manila: Center for Research and Communication College of Arts and Sciences. 111 pages. 7 x 4.75 in.

“Pragmatic” and “toughmined” conjure up at once the impact of William James (1842-1910) on American thinking and life. It was he who popularized them at the turn of the century through his lectures, essays and books, and a charming and persuasive personality.


On the other hand, James’s strong moral and religious bent, along with his personal uprightness and warm-hearted love for his fellow human beings, prompted him to engage in crusades for moral regeneration, social justice and political honesty.


It is his pragmatism, his philosophy of the primacy of action and praxis over contemplation and theory to the extent of conceiving truth as a function of human praxis, that has had a pervasive impact on American culture, and thereby on 20th century world events.


When reading James, one often feels in deep agreement with his noble sentiments—his heart is indeed in the right place!—and hence all the more regretting his lack of sufficient knowledge of the history of philosophy and consequent inadequacy of intellectual weaponry for the effective exposition of his insights, and the resulting obscurities and ambiguities that have actually landed him with uncomfortable fellow-travellers.

The present book is then a commentary on each of the chapters of Pragmatism, against the backdrop of the rest of James’s work, approaching this philosophy sympathetically and objectively (De Torre, 1990, pp. 6-7, 9, 13, emphasis added).

William James: Pragmatism contains 10 sections: “Introduction to Pragmatism, A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking”; “The Present Dilemma in Philosophy”; “What Pragmatism Means”; “Some Metaphysical Problems Pragmatically Considered”; “The One and the Many”; “Pragmatism and Common Sense”; “Pragmatism’s Conception of Truth”; “Pragmatism and Humanism”; “Pragmatism and Religion”; and Final Assessment.

De Torre, J. M. (1987). Politics and the Church: From Rerum Novarum to liberation theology. Metro Manila: Center for Research and Communication. 297 pages. 9 x 6 in.

The issue is then not that of making a choice between capitalism and socialism, let alone of allying the Church to either. The Church’s role must remain faithful to her transcendence. . . . Her role is ethical and religious, not economic or social or political: in these temporal fields, it is the laity, not the official ministers of the Church, that must make the Church present in society like leaven in the dough (De Torre, 1987, p. 234, emphasis added).

The present study is a summarized exposition, both historical and doctrinal, of the social teaching of the Church, putting it side by side with the political and socio-economic ideologies prevalent in the contemporary world and their mutual influence, with particular reference to liberation theology, due to the recent impact of the latter on large areas of the Christian world. It does not intend to be a substitute for the reading and studying of the actual Church documents, but rather an introduction and a backgrounder, as well as a guide and, hopefully, a stimulus for such a study (De Torre, 1987, p. xiv).

Politics and the Church covers four parts: History (the pontificates of Leo XIII to John Paul II, the Second Vatican Council, and their resulting encyclicals); Doctrine (on Liberation Theology, the role of the Magisterium in temporal matters, work, production, and trade unions, and on rights and duties of citizens and of the political community); Anthology of Papal Texts; and Conclusion—the Church’s stand on Capitalism and Socialism. The book also contains three appendices:  The “Los Andes” declaration on Liberation Theology; Liberation Theology updated; and instruction on Christian freedom and liberation.

Second Edition
De Torre, J. M. (Ed.). (1987). Social Morals: The Church speaks on society (2nd ed.). Metro Manila: Center for Research and Communication. 218 pages. 10 x 7 in.

It has been said that great ideas begin in mysticism and end up in politics. We can equally say that they end up in economics, in sociology, in anthropology, in empirical psychology, in short in the field of temporal realities.


Man is a God-seeker, not because he projects a sublimated image of himself, but because the reality of God asserts itself to his intelligence the moment this unique human power of understanding reality as such is awakened in him through his contact with reality. . . .


This, however, makes man liable to another great temptation: that temporalism which can lead him to either absolutize earthly things or institutions, or relativize eternal truths. . . .


The economist, the sociologist, the politician, the businessman, the industrialist, the farmer, the educator, if he is open to transcendent values and to divine revelation, will find in this book a guide to avoid the pitfalls of both a secularism that attempts to do without God and eternal truths in worldly affairs and ends up with an artificial “separation of Church and State,” and a clericalism that confuses the transcendent goal of the Church with the earthly goals of the State (De Torre, 1987, pp. vii-viii, emphasis added).

The objective of this book is to let the authoritative voice of the Church be heard concerning the ever-valid Christian principles which should guide human activity in the social, economic, and political field, by putting together in a systematic order some of the most relevant texts, and reducing commentary to a minimum. The purpose is to let the authoritative texts speak for themselves, so that the reader can judge by himself both the importance of the issues and the weight of authority given to each of the doctrinal statements (De Torre, p. vii).

The book contains 10 chapters, comprising the following topics:  The social doctrine of the Church; the nature of man and of society; the common good; family and society; state and society; intermediate societies and associations; work and society; associations in the field of labor; private ownership and society; and education and society.

De Torre, J. M. (1985). Work, culture, liberation:  The social teaching of the Church. Philippines:  Vera-Reyes, Inc. 237 pages. 7 x 4.5 in.

The trouble with these two ideologies of liberalism and socialism, which have been rocking mankind with an escalation of socio-economic and political upheavals for the last five or six centuries, is that they are not radical enough. . . . they refuse to accept that the root of those evils is not in the structures of society as such but in the very heart of man, of every human being.


The problem of man is that he is a creature of love, even if this love may be prostituted or corrupted by selfishness.


It is from the human heart that evil comes whenever the human heart fails to love the ultimate good and slides back into itself with a perverse act of self-deification. The radical cure of the human heart must therefore be a total conversion to that fullness of good which alone can satisfy the human heart’s incalculable capacity for love (De Torre, 1985, pp. 2-3, emphasis added).

The present book shows the unique power of Christianity to propel the all-around development of society through work and culture breeding civilization, by the inner transformation of man through a dynamic anthropology issuing from the transcendence of the human spirit and its consequent creativity. Christianity truly liberates man—there is doubtless a genuine “theology of liberation” at the very heart of Christianity, and this is the central thrust of the book—but on condition that it be applied (a) pure and unalloyed, i.e. without extraneous elements that would corrupt its essence; and (b) by the right agents acting in the right place and using the right means, i.e. by recognizing the proper roles of clergy and laity (De Torre, 1985, back cover).

This book contains 10 chapters on the following topics:  Human culture and progress—the shaping of society and the liberation of man; the common good—material values and spiritual values; professional work as direct contribution to the common good—a work ethic; the family and the common good—a school of love and life; the foundation of human rights—transcendence of the human person; human freedom and responsibility—the principle of subsidiarity and the role of authority; liberation through education—the perfectibility of man; liberation through justice and love—liberty, liberalism and liberation theology; love as basis of civilization—the human call to culture; and roles of the Church and of the state—clergy and laity according to Vatican II.

De Torre, J. M. (1984). Christ and the moral life. Manila:  Sinag-Tala Publishers, Inc. 87 pages. 7 x 4.5 in.

Is the moral law subject to change in any sense?

This is an attempt to discuss the peculiar features of our age: an age that tends to pit change against permanence, the physical against the moral, the temporal against the eternal, in the light of what the Church has always taught (De Torre, 1984, back cover, emphasis added).

Christ and the Moral Life contains 13 chapters:  morality and Christian morality; Christian morality as revealed by God; Christian morality and the ascetical struggle; features of the ascetical struggle; final goal of the moral life—union with God in eternity; moral awareness and conscience; the influence of Kantian philosophy and of historicism; the fundamental option; common ground of these new trends; a crisis of faith; the education of conscience; and perseverance in the Christian life.

De Torre, J. M. (1975). Marxism, Socialism, and Christianity. Malate, Manila:  Center for Research and Communication. 132 pages. 8.25 x 6.25 in.

“Whoever turns his attention to the bitter strifes of these days . . . must come to the conclusion that a fruitful cause of the evils which now afflict, as well as of those which threaten us, lies in this: that false conclusions concerning divine and human things, which originated in the schools of philosophy, have crept into all the orders of the State, and have been accepted by the common consent of the masses” (Pope Leo XIII, cited in De Torre, 1975, p. ii, emphasis added).

“According to Christian doctrine, man, endowed with a social nature is placed on earth . . . that he may develop and evolve to the full all his faculties to the praise and glory of his Creator; and that, by fulfilling faithfully the duties of his station, he may attain to temporal and eternal happiness. Socialism, on the contrary, entirely ignorant of or unconcerned about this sublime end both of individuals and of society, affirms that living in community was instituted merely for the sake of the advantages which it brings to mankind” (Pope Pius XI, cited in De Torre, 1975, p. 114, emphasis added).

The purpose of this book is neither to give an exhaustive account of the Marxist system nor to make a minute analysis of some aspect of it. . . . The purpose is rather to take a global view and point out the sources or roots, both historical and ideological, of this modern quasi-religion and all its ramifications (De Torre, 1975, p. iv).

Marxism, Socialism and Christianity comprises 10 chapters: Origin of Marxism; Marxian philosophical assumptions; work and economy as seen by Marx; bourgeois society and its end according to Marx; future society as proclaimed by K. Marx; Lenin and the Revolution of 1917; development of the revolution; Communist action outside the USSR; Communist Marxism as integral conception of life; and Socialism today.

De Torre, J. M. (2008). “Towards progress through education: The philosophy of education.” Occasional Papers on Education and Culture 12. Pasig:  University of Asia and the Pacific College of Arts and Sciences. 32 pages. 8.5 x 5.5 in.

You should pay particular attention to the younger generations, showing them that they are a country’s greatest wealth. Their integral education is a fundamental necessity. In fact, a technical and scientific training is not enough to fashion men and women who are responsible in their families and on every level of society. To reach this objective, one has to promote education based on human and moral values that enable each young person to trust in himself, to hope in the future, concerning himself with his brothers and sisters, and taking on his role in the development of the nation, with an ever increasing and acute sense of concern for others (Pope Benedict XVI, cited in De Torre, 2008, p. 2).

In view of this forceful emphasis on the vital question of education, I have decided to reprint a relevant article which I published in 1985 in my book, Work, Culture, Liberation(De Torre, 2008, p. 3).

This article spans 15 sections:  The hungry sheep; alienation and freedom; community and privacy; the existential vacuum; the search for the transcendentals; the esthetic thrust; love and creativity; love and transcendence; the leveling of education; sophistry and education; education and instruction; education for values; the family as primary agency; family, school, nation, mass media; and conclusion.

De Torre, J. M. (2006). “The dictatorship of Relativism and its impact on culture.” Occasional Papers on Education and Culture 11. Pasig:  University of Asia and the Pacific College of Arts and Sciences. 16 pages. 8.5 x 5.5 in.

The concept of person continues to bring about a profound understanding of the unique character and social dimension of every human being. This is especially true in legal and social institutions, where the notion of ‘person’ is fundamental. Sometimes, however, even when this is recognized in international declarations and legal statues, certain cultures, especially when not deeply touched by the Gospel, remain strongly influenced by group-centered ideologies or by an individualistic and secularist view of society. The social doctrine of the Catholic Church, which places the human person at the heart and source of social order, can offer much to the contemporary consideration of social themes (Pope Benedict XVI, cited in De Torre, 2006, pp. 2-3).

In 1995 the author of this paper published a book in this university entitled Generation and Degeneration: A Survey of Ideologies, in which over fifty contemporary ideologies were traced in their historical genesis to various “degenerations” of basic and valid truths.

The stand of Pope Benedict XVI . . . has prompted the author to present this paper on several aspects of relativism, and its cognate ideology of individualism based on the aforementioned book (De Torre, 2006, p. 3).

“The Dictatorship of Relativism and Its Impact on Culture” has four parts: Introduction; from Relativity to Relativism; from individual to Individualism; and conclusion.

De Torre, J. M. (2006). “Is God attainable by humanity at this point of history? Can Aquinas still address our time?” Occasional Papers on Education and Culture 10. Pasig:  University of Asia and the Pacific College of Arts and Sciences. 16 pages. 8.5 x 5.5 in.

On April 1 this year [2005], just the day before John Paul II’s holy death, Cardinal Ratzinger . . . delivered an address on the present crisis of culture and identity, especially in the Old World.


After citing two signs of this crisis, namely, the threat of terrorism and the possibility to manipulate the origin of human life, Cardinal Ratzinger as reported by Zenit, pointed out that “Europe has developed a culture that, in a way previously unknown to humanity, excludes God from the public consciousness, either by denying him altogether or by judging that his existence cannot be demonstrated, is uncertain, and therefore, somewhat irrelevant to public life” . . . .


Only a friendly, radical and thorough review of the history of mankind can help us to understand this crisis and enable us to discuss the questions presented by this paper. The relevance of St. Thomas can only be perceived in the context of history, as we shall see.

In light of the late John Paul II’s initiative regarding the essential link of Faith and Reason, and the significance of Christian Philosophy in its historical perspective for our time, the author has found it useful to present a paper reproducing relevant passages of his book Christian Philosophy. This work, published in 1980, shows its obvious links withFides et Ratio and the present global crisis. This earlier work describes the historical approach to this question (De Torre, 2006, pp. 1-3, emphasis added).

This paper contains four sections:  Introduction; excerpts from the foreword to Christian Philosophy; chapter 4 of Christian Philosophy—development of Philosophy in Christianity; and conclusion.

De Torre, J. M. (2004). “The identity of Europe as cradle of both Imperialism and Democracy: Are they both utopias?” Occasional Papers on Education and Culture 8. Pasig:  University of Asia and the Pacific College of Arts and Sciences. 18 pages. 8.5 x 5.5 in.

What is the “European identity”? Is it a many-splendored thing? Or is it an unmanageable hotch-potch of baffling contradictions? Is it an inexhaustible source of human creativity? Or is it a perpetual nucleus of moral, social, economic and political upheavals? All the epoch-making cultural achievements, as well as the most appalling bloodbaths originated in Europe, and spread around the world. Why?

Among all the possible perspectives one could choose in this regard to cast light on this fascinating scenario, this paper focuses on the two major projects of European or Western civilization and their world-wide or global impact, namely imperialism anddemocracy (De Torre, 2004, p. 2, emphasis added).

This paper by Fr. De Torre is divided into five sections:  Imperialism and Democracy – historical overview; the Christian empire; Christendom, world-empire, Islam and Imperialism; the rise of Democracy; and conclusion.

De Torre, J. M. (2001). “My personal memories of Fr. Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. (1877-1964).” Occasional Papers on Education and Culture 3. Pasig:  University of Asia and the Pacific College of Arts and Sciences. 21 pages. 8.5 x 5.5 in.

The following essay contains the class notes Fr. De Torre took when he, then a young candidate for a doctorate in philosophy at the Angelicum, attended Fr. Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange’s course on Aristotle’s Metaphysics in the academic year 1952-53. Fr. De Torre has always been a great admirer and disciple of this renowned Thomist philosopher and theologian, and we are fortunate that he has kept his class notes so carefully during all these years. Because what emerges from a reading of the present essay is something more like a living picture of Garrigou-Lagrange in action: his engaging style as a teacher, his broad intellectual vision, his capacity to compare different philosophers in clarifying philosophical questions, even his passion in expounding matters that touched on his favorite themes—all these can be gleaned from Fr. De Tore’s vivid recollections (Santos, C., cited in De Torre, 2001, foreword, emphasis added).

This paper covers seven parts:  Introduction; actual content of Garrigou’s course; the possibility of Metaphysics; the question of method; the first principles of Reason; corollaries; and conclusion.